Education abroad and Brain drain
Some students prefer to continue their education in another country for different reasons. They may want to learn the host country’s language, learn their major from the first hand resources, or they may have political and social problems in their country that make them to go another country to study (brain drain). Or the reason may be acquaintance with other countries culture; in fact, in the era of globalization this cross-culture impulse has been reinforced. People become aware of other countries facilities or strong points in special scientific field and depart to gain that knowledge.
In some countries, there are study abroad consultants that have communication with different universities in some countries and give the students required information about the course, payment, scholarship and provide help in doing application procurers and guiding about visa process. Therefore, the trend of finding suitable university has been easier.
In the United States, the first study abroad program started in 1923. Prof. Raymond W. Kirkbride who was an instructor in the Modern Languages Department in the University of Delaware offered his plan to the university president. His plan, Delaware Foreign Study, was accepted and in a time that America liked to keep isolated, eight students were sent to France to study.
From then on, dispatching students has continued in different ways. One way is Winterim or winter session, in which student takes part the education program in a short period between fall and spring semesters. Length of study can range from one week, to a whole academic year. Today United States students prefer the United Kingdom for studying to other countries and then Italy and Spain.
On the other hand, unites states is the major host for the students from abroad. It”has the world’s largest international student population, with nearly 600,000 students choosing to broaden their education and life experience in the United States. Nearly 4% of all students enrolled in higher-level education are international students, and the numbers are growing.” However, the rate of accepting students from the United States has been changing through time and has not always been in a steady growing way.
For instance after September 11 attack on Union Trade Center, the restrictions and limitations imposed on issuing student’s visas especially on Arab Muslim countries, declined the number of the students. In the area of treating students from suspecting countries, mostly Muslim and Arab countries of course, a proposal was introduced in congress that “would restrict eligibility for students’ visas.
Moreover, those who were studying there were faced problems returning the universities, even some of them forced to quit their study. These restrictions were implemented while by and large, student visa make up a small percentage of people entering the United States every ear. Therefore, the tough measures against students seem somehow unreasonable.
Paving the road of education in the United States may have some other reasons aside from interests. Many students and scientists from other developing countries prefer to stay in America and continue their scientific works because of social and political problems in their countries. This increasing trend has been known as Brain-drain. “The term originated about 1960, when many British scientists and intellectuals emigrated to the United States for a better working climate.”
It “can be simply defined as the mass emigration of technically skilled people from one country to another country. Brain-drain can have many reasons, for example political instability of a nation, lack of opportunities, health risks, personal conflicts etc. Brain-drain can also be named as “human capital flight” because it resembles the case of capital flight, in which mass migration of financial capital is involved.”
Examining the reason of brain drain in different areas has led to different causes. For example In Middle East “lack of some basic facilities and services are the reasons for the mass migration from these areas. Dictatorship, terrorism, orthodox attitude are basic hurdles of development of this region.
In Asia Unemployment, population explosion and corrupt political systems are main reasons for migration of skilled workers from this area.
In countries like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh etc graduates, post graduates, experienced and skilled professionals are not getting enough opportunities to develop and succeed. So with dreams of development these professionals leave their native country in search of better future. This brain-drain is a great loss to these developing countries.” Like the continent of Africa that “according to a survey Ethiopia lost its 75 % of skilled workers in the years 1980-1991.”
Studying in another country can be a good way to be acquitted with other cultures aside from learning specific knowledge. So, if every country facilitate job opportunities for these graduated people, and grantee their welfare, then they will benefit by sending their students instead of loss. Graduated people with a wide attitude, knowing other nations experiences, and other experiences like self-sufficiency an outcome of living apart from family, could probably think, manage and handle the job in a better way.